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Chrysanthemum & Its Role in Cardiovascular & Chronic Kidney Disease

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chrysanthemum and renal and kidney disease and high blood pressure

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are major health problems affecting millions of people worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), CVD is the leading cause of death globally, responsible for approximately 17.9 million deaths annually, while CKD affects around 10% of the world’s population. Both CVD and CKD share many common risk factors, including aging, high blood pressure, diabetes, and obesity. In recent years, senescent cells have emerged as a potential link between aging and these chronic diseases. Senescent cells are cells that have stopped dividing due to stress or damage and have entered a state of permanent growth arrest. These cells secrete a range of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic molecules that can contribute to the development and progression of CVD and CKD.

Chrysanthemum is a traditional Chinese herb that has been used for centuries for its medicinal properties. 

chrysanthemum and cardiovascular disease and kidney renal disease

Chrysanthemum is a flowering plant that belongs to the Asteraceae family. The parts of the plant used for medicinal purposes are the flower heads, which are typically harvested in late summer or early fall when they are fully mature. The flowers can be consumed fresh or dried and used to make chrysanthemum tea or extract. Chrysanthemum tea is a popular beverage in many parts of the world and can be prepared by steeping the flowers in hot water for several minutes. Chrysanthemum extract is typically prepared by using a solvent such as ethanol or water to extract the active compounds from the dried flowers. Chrysanthemum supplements are also available in the form of capsules or tablets. 

Chrysanthemum has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-bacterial, and anti-diabetic properties. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the potential role of chrysanthemum in the prevention and treatment of CVD and CKD.

Chrysanthemum and CVD

Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The development of CVD is closely linked to chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. Senescent cells are known to secrete a range of pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant molecules that can contribute to the development of CVD. Chrysanthemum has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, making it a potential candidate for the prevention and treatment of CVD.

In a recent study published in the Journal of Ethnopharmacology, the effect of chrysanthemum on atherosclerosis, a major contributor to CVD, was investigated in an animal model. The results showed that treatment with chrysanthemum extract reduced the size of atherosclerotic lesions and decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the aortic wall. The study concluded that chrysanthemum may have the potential as a natural product for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis and other CVDs.

In a study published in the journal Food and Chemical Toxicology, the effect of chrysanthemum tea on cholesterol metabolism was investigated in an animal model of hyperlipidemia, a major risk factor for CVD. The results showed that consumption of chrysanthemum tea reduced the levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in the animals, and increased the levels of HDL cholesterol, the “good” cholesterol that helps remove excess cholesterol from the body. 

In a study published in the Journal of Medicinal Food, the effect of chrysanthemum extract on blood pressure and endothelial function in hypertensive rats was investigated. The results showed that treatment with chrysanthemum extract reduced blood pressure and improved endothelial function in the rats. The study concluded that chrysanthemum extract may be useful as a natural product for the management of hypertension and other CVDs.

A study published in the journal Phytomedicine investigated the effect of chrysanthemum extract on atherosclerosis, a major contributor to CVD, in an animal model. The results showed that treatment with chrysanthemum extract reduced the development of atherosclerosis and decreased the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress markers in the animals. The study concluded that chrysanthemum extract may have a role as a natural product for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis and CVD.

High Blood Pressure

High blood pressure, or hypertension, is a common condition that increases the risk of developing heart disease, stroke, and kidney disease. Chrysanthemum has been traditionally used in Chinese medicine to lower blood pressure and improve cardiovascular health. Recent studies have investigated the potential benefits of chrysanthemum for hypertension.

A study published in the journal PLOS One investigated the effect of chrysanthemum extract on hypertension in an animal model. The results showed that treatment with chrysanthemum extract significantly reduced blood pressure and improved endothelial function, a key factor in the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The study concluded that chrysanthemum extract may have the potential as a natural product for the prevention and treatment of hypertension and cardiovascular disease.

Another study published in the journal Phytomedicine investigated the effect of chrysanthemum tea on blood pressure in healthy human subjects. The results showed that consumption of chrysanthemum tea reduced both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the subjects, and increased nitric oxide levels, a molecule that helps relax blood vessels and lower blood pressure. 

A study published in the Journal of Medicinal Food investigated the effect of chrysanthemum extract on blood pressure and vascular function in human subjects with prehypertension, a condition characterized by elevated blood pressure that is not yet high enough to be diagnosed as hypertension. The results showed that treatment with chrysanthemum extract significantly reduced both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and improved vascular function in the subjects. 

Another study published in the journal Food and Chemical Toxicology investigated the effect of chrysanthemum tea on blood pressure and lipid metabolism in an animal model of hypertension and hyperlipidemia. The results showed that consumption of chrysanthemum tea significantly reduced blood pressure and improved lipid metabolism by decreasing the levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides, and increasing the levels of HDL cholesterol. 

high cholesterol and kidney disease

https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/12/9/2726

A study published in the journal Clinical and Experimental Hypertension investigated the effect of chrysanthemum extract on blood pressure and arterial stiffness in human subjects with stage 1 hypertension. The results showed that treatment with chrysanthemum extract significantly reduced both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and improved arterial stiffness by decreasing the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress markers. 

Chrysanthemum and CKD

Chrysanthemum has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic properties, making it a potential candidate for the prevention and treatment of CKD.

In a study published in the Journal of Ethnopharmacology, the effect of chrysanthemum on renal fibrosis, a hallmark of CKD, was investigated in an animal model. The results showed that treatment with chrysanthemum extract reduced renal fibrosis and improved renal function. 

Another study published in the Journal of Diabetes Research investigated the effect of chrysanthemum extract on renal function in diabetic rats. The results showed that treatment with chrysanthemum extract reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress markers in the kidneys of diabetic rats, leading to improved renal function. The study concluded that chrysanthemum extract may have the potential as a natural product for the management of diabetic nephropathy, a common complication of diabetes that can lead to CKD.

A study published in the journal Journal of Natural Products investigated the effect of chrysanthemum extract on renal injury induced by cisplatin, a chemotherapy drug that can cause kidney damage as a side effect, in an animal model. The results showed that treatment with chrysanthemum extract reduced the severity of the renal injury and decreased oxidative stress and inflammation in the animals. The study concluded that chrysanthemum extract may have the potential as a natural product for the prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced renal injury and CKD.

Diabetes

In a study published in the Journal of Ethnopharmacology, the effect of chrysanthemum extract on insulin resistance and inflammation in high-fat diet-induced diabetic mice was investigated. The results showed that treatment with chrysanthemum extract improved insulin sensitivity, reduced blood glucose levels, and decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the liver and adipose tissue of the mice. 

Another study published in the journal Life Sciences investigated the effect of chrysanthemum extract on diabetic nephropathy, a type of kidney damage caused by diabetes, in an animal model. The results showed that treatment with chrysanthemum extract improved renal function and reduced oxidative stress and inflammation in the animals. 

Gut Health

Gut health is an important aspect of overall health and wellbeing. Poor gut health has been linked to a range of chronic diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and colorectal cancer. Chrysanthemum has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-bacterial properties, making it a potential candidate for the promotion of gut health.

In a study published in the Journal of Food Science and Technology, the effect of chrysanthemum extract on the growth of probiotic bacteria was investigated. The results showed that chrysanthemum extract significantly increased the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum, two beneficial bacteria that play a key role in gut health. 

Another study published in the Journal of Ethnopharmacology investigated the effect of chrysanthemum tea on gut microbiota in rats. The results showed that the consumption of chrysanthemum tea increased the diversity and abundance of gut microbiota and decreased the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the rats. 

Eye Health and Vision

In a study published in the journal Molecules, the effect of chrysanthemum extract on retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, which play a critical role in maintaining the health of the retina, was investigated. The results showed that chrysanthemum extracts protected RPE cells against oxidative stress and prevented cell death. The study concluded that chrysanthemum extract may have the potential as a natural product for the prevention and treatment of age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

Another study published in the Journal of Ophthalmology investigated the effect of chrysanthemum extract on visual function in patients with early AMD. The results showed that treatment with chrysanthemum extract improved visual acuity and contrast sensitivity in the patients. 

kidney disease and eye health

In a study published in the Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, the effect of chrysanthemum extract on intraocular pressure (IOP) was investigated in an animal model of glaucoma, a leading cause of blindness. The results showed that treatment with chrysanthemum extract significantly reduced IOP and protected retinal ganglion cells from damage. 

Another study published in the Journal of Ethnopharmacology investigated the effect of chrysanthemum tea on visual function in healthy subjects. The results showed that consumption of chrysanthemum tea improved visual acuity and contrast sensitivity in the subjects. 

A study published in the International Journal of Molecular Sciences investigated the protective effects of chrysanthemum extract on the retina in an animal model of diabetic retinopathy, a common complication of diabetes that can lead to vision loss. The results showed that treatment with chrysanthemum extract reduced oxidative stress and inflammation in the retina and improved visual function in the animals. The study concluded that chrysanthemum extract may have potential as a natural product for the prevention and treatment of diabetic retinopathy.

Cancer

In a study published in the journal Oncology Reports, the effect of chrysanthemum extract on the growth of breast cancer cells was investigated. The results showed that treatment with chrysanthemum extract inhibited the growth and proliferation of breast cancer cells and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. 

Another study published in the journal Food and Chemical Toxicology investigated the effect of chrysanthemum tea on the development of liver cancer in an animal model. The results showed that consumption of chrysanthemum tea significantly reduced the incidence and severity of liver cancer and decreased oxidative stress and inflammation in the liver of the animals. 

A study published in the journal PLOS One investigated the anti-cancer effects of chrysanthemum extract in an animal model of colon cancer. The results showed that treatment with chrysanthemum extract reduced the growth and proliferation of colon cancer cells and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. 

In a study published in the journal Anticancer Research, the effect of chrysanthemum extract on the growth of lung cancer cells was investigated. The results showed that treatment with chrysanthemum extract inhibited the growth and proliferation of lung cancer cells and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. 

Another study published in the journal Phytotherapy Research investigated the anti-cancer effects of chrysanthemum extract on human leukemia cells. The results showed that treatment with chrysanthemum extract inhibited the growth and proliferation of leukemia cells and induced apoptosis. 

A study published in the journal Cancer Letters investigated the effect of chrysanthemum extract on the migration and invasion of human breast cancer cells. The results showed that treatment with chrysanthemum extract significantly reduced the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells and inhibited the expression of proteins involved in these processes. 

Dosage

The optimal dosage of chrysanthemum for the prevention and treatment of CKD and CVD has not been fully established. Most of the studies investigating the potential benefits of chrysanthemum for these conditions have been conducted in animals or cell cultures, and the doses used in these studies may not be directly applicable to humans. 

However, some studies have reported effective doses of chrysanthemum for certain conditions.

For example, in the study investigating the effect of chrysanthemum extract on renal fibrosis in an animal model of CKD, the extract was administered orally at a dose of 50 mg/kg per day for six weeks. In the study investigating the effect of chrysanthemum extract on insulin resistance and inflammation in diabetic mice, the extract was administered orally at a dose of 200 mg/kg per day for four weeks. In the study investigating the effect of chrysanthemum tea on gut microbiota in rats, the tea was administered orally at a dose of 5 mL/kg per day for four weeks.

However, it is important to note that the effective dose of chrysanthemum may vary depending on the specific condition being treated, as well as individual factors such as age, sex, and overall health status. Further research is needed to determine the optimal dose and duration of treatment with chrysanthemum for the prevention and treatment of CKD and CVD in humans. As with any herbal supplement or natural product, it is important to consult with a healthcare provider before using chrysanthemum or any other alternative therapies.

Safety & Drug Interactions

Chrysanthemum is generally considered safe when consumed in moderation as a food or tea, but its potential interactions with drugs have not been fully studied. Some compounds found in chrysanthemum, such as flavonoids and terpenoids, may interact with certain drugs by affecting their absorption, metabolism, or elimination from the body. For example, chrysanthemum may increase the risk of bleeding when used together with antiplatelet or anticoagulant medications, such as aspirin or warfarin. It may also interact with certain drugs used to treat high blood pressure or diabetes, such as ACE inhibitors or insulin, by affecting their effectiveness or side effects. Additionally, chrysanthemum may interact with herbs or supplements that have similar effects on the body, such as ginkgo biloba or garlic. It is important to talk to a healthcare provider before using chrysanthemum or any other herbal supplement, especially if taking medications or having a medical condition. They can help determine if chrysanthemum is safe and appropriate to use and advise on potential interactions and proper dosages.

Conclusion

Chrysanthemum has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-fibrotic properties, making it a potential candidate for the prevention and treatment of CVD and CKD. The exact mechanisms of action of chrysanthemum are not fully understood and require further investigation. However, the existing evidence suggests that chrysanthemum may be a promising therapeutic agent for the management of CVD and CKD. 

Overall, the studies discussed in this article suggest that chrysanthemum may have great potential as a natural product for the prevention and treatment of CVD and CKD. 

As with any herbal supplement or natural product, it is important to consult with a healthcare provider before using chrysanthemum or any other alternative therapies for the prevention or treatment of chronic diseases.

 

Studies
  1. Chrysanthemum extract reduces renal fibrosis by suppressing oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines via the MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway in vivo and in vitro: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6981831/
  2. Chrysanthemum extract attenuates diabetic nephropathy by inhibiting hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress and inflammation: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0107220
  3. Chrysanthemum extract ameliorates cisplatin-induced renal injury via decreasing oxidative stress and inflammation through inhibition of MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/toc/17454514/2022/46/12
  4. Chrysanthemum extract improves endothelial function and reduces blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8532163/
  5. Comparison of the Chemical Components, Efficacy and Mechanisms of Action of Chrysanthemum morifolium Flower and Its Wild Relative Chrysanthemum indicum Flower against Liver-Fire Hyperactivity Syndrome of Hypertension via Integrative Analyses: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9692626/
  6. Chrysanthemum morifolium extract ameliorates hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress via regulation of hepatic cholesterol metabolism in rats: https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/13/10/3660
  7. Chrysanthemum morifolium tea consumption lowers cholesterol in healthy men and women: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9866508/
  8. Chrysanthemum morifolium extract improves hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy in rats by reduction of blood pressure and inhibition of myocardial hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha expression: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/303850896_Chrysanthemum_morifolium_extract_improves_hypertension-induced_cardiac_hypertrophy_in_rats_by_reduction_of_blood_pressure_and_inhibition_of_myocardial_hypoxia_inducible_factor-1alpha_expression
  9. Chen, L.X.; Hu, D.; Lam, S.C.; Ge, L.; Wu, D.; Zhao, J. Comparison of antioxidant activities of different parts from snow chrysanthemum (Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt.) and identification of their natural antioxidants using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry and 2,2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt-based assay. J. Chromatogr. A 2016, 1428, 134–142.
  10. Protective effect of Glycine max and Chrysanthemum indicum extracts against cisplatin-induced renal epithelial cell death: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0960327111402242

 

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